The Chicago American Giants were a legendary Negro League baseball team that played an integral role in the history of African American sports. Founded in 1910, they quickly became one of the most successful teams in black baseball, winning multiple championships and establishing themselves as one of the preeminent franchises during their time. Led by player-manager Andrew “Rube” Foster from 1911 to 1926, this powerhouse squad was a charter member of his Negro National League and went on to win five pennants.
In addition to dominating competition within their league, The American Giants also won numerous additional titles throughout the years including a 1932 Negro Southern League championship and a second-half title at Gus Greenlee’s Pittsburgh Crawfords Clubhouse. Today they are remembered fondly for their immense success both on and off the diamond which helped pave the way for future generations of African Americans in professional sports.
- Rube Foster
- Bill Foster
- Cristóbal Torriente
- Pete Hill
- Bingo DeMoss
- Rube Curry
- Robert Poindexter
- Bill Charter
- Jim Brown
- Dave Malarcher
- George Harney
- Dave Brown
- Frank Wickware
- Willie Powell
- Dick Whitworth
- Pythias Russ
- Leroy Grant
- Ted Trent
- Jelly Gardner
- Steel Arm Davis
- Tom Johnson
- Jimmie Lyons
- Jack Marshall
- Charles O'Neil
- Steven Dixon
- Harry Bauchman
- Bruce Petway
- Herb Barnhill
- Percy Bailey
- Ossie Brown
- Red Hale
- Oscar Boone
- Randolph Bowe
- Leonard Johnson
- Jesse Briscoe
- Cleo Benson
- Leland Davis
- Lloyd Bruce
- Herbert Buster
- Robert Griffin
- Dennis Biddle
- John Hines
- Juan Padrón
- Wilson Redus
- Tom Turner
- Nat Rogers
- Willie Ware
- Clarence Locke
- Clyde McNeal
- Luther Gilyard
- Zell Miles
1. Rube Foster
- Managerial record: 336–195–11
- 4× Negro National League pennant (1920–1922, 1926)
Rube Foster was a hugely successful pitcher and manager in both the Negro leagues and Major League Baseball. He began his career with the Chicago Union Giants in 1902, before moving on to manage the Chicago American Giants later that year.
In 1917, he moved to the Boston Red Sox where he would stay for two seasons, managing them to a combined record of 36-36. After leaving baseball, Foster ran a grocery store in Kankakee, Illinois until his death from pneumonia at 51 years old in 1930.
Foster was one of the most successful managers in Negro National League history, leading Chicago American Giants to four pennants and a World Series championship. Foster also played for several teams during his career, including the Louisville White Sox and Chicago Union Giants.
He is considered one of the pioneers of African American baseball management and has been honored by both the Negro Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum as well as numerous other organizations.
Also Played For: negro league baseball, national baseball hall of fame and museum
2. Bill Foster
- Win–loss record: 143–69
- Earned run average: 2.40
- 2× All-Star (1933, 1934), 2× Negro League World Series champion (1926, 1927)
Bill Foster was a pitcher and outfielder in the Negro National League. He had a 143-69 win-loss record in his career. Foster debuted with the Memphis Red Sox in 1923, but he would only play for them for one season before moving to the Chicago American Giants later that year.
Foster played until 1937, retiring at the age of 46 due to injuries sustained during his career. After retirement from baseball, Foster worked as an insurance agent and died in 1978 at 74 years old Foster was an all-star in the Negro Leagues and a champion of the world series.
Foster is one of just five players to win three batting titles in the Negro Leagues, and he led his league eight times in home runs and RBIs during his career.
Foster also starred as a pitcher for several teams over parts of 15 seasons, including stints with the Memphis Red Sox (1923–24), Chicago American Giants (1923–30, 1932–35, 1937), Birmingham Black Barons (1925), and Homestead Grays (1931).
3. Cristóbal Torriente
- Batting average: .340
- Hits: 759
- Home runs: 55
- Runs batted in: 530
- Stolen bases: 93
- Negro National League batting champion (1920), 3× Negro National League pennant (1920–1922), , Cuban Winter League Baseball, , All time career batting average record: .352
Cristobal Torriente was a left-handed outfielder who played for the Chicago American Giants in 1920 and the Louisville Black Caps in 1932. He had an impressive batting average of .340 with 759 hits, 55 home runs, and 530 RBIs in his career.
Cristóbal Torriente died from a heart attack at age 44 while playing baseball for New York's African Americans on their spring training team.
Cristóbal Torriente was one of the most successful catchers in Cuban baseball history. He began his career with Habana and helped lead them to two championships in 1912 and 1913.
Torriente then played for Almendares, where he won another championship in 1916. After a few years away from Cuban baseball, Torriente rejoined Albendares and led them to yet another title in 1917.
The catcher then signed with Cuban Stars, where he would remain until 1916 when he left for All Nations briefly before returning to Cuba again later that year.
In 1918, Torriente joined the newly formed Major League Baseball team known as the Chicago American Giants but only played a handful of games before retiring at age 33 due to injury. Torriente made a return to playing minor league ball after his retirement from MLB and continued doing so through 1931.
Torriente also served as manager for three teams during his playing days: Cuban Stars (1921), Louisville Black Caps (1932), and Atlanta Black Crackers (1933).
In all three instances, he led his teams to playoff appearances but never advanced past the first round. In 2002 Cristobal Torienté was inducted into both the Caribbean Baseball Hall of Fame (inducted 2003)and the Florida State League Hall of Fame(inducted 2005).
4. Pete Hill
- Negro league baseball, Lifetime batting average: .326
Pete Hill was an outfielder who played in the Negro leagues from 1899 to 1925. He had a long and successful career, playing for several teams including Pittsburgh Keystones, Cuban X-Giants, and Baltimore Black Sox.
Pete Hill is remembered as one of the best black players of his era and is now considered a pioneer in baseball history. Pete Hill was one of the most successful African American baseball players in history.
He played for a number of teams during his career, including the Philadelphia Giants (1903- 1907), Habana (1907- 1912), Leland Giants ( 1908- 1910), and Brooklyn Royal Giants ( 1908 - 1909).
Hill is perhaps best known for his time with the Chicago American Giants, where he won two Negro league championships in 1911 and 1912.
After playing briefly with the San Francisco Park team in 1915, Pete Hill joined the Detroit Stars as their first black player ever before retiring from professional baseball at age 30 due to an injury sustained while playing semi-pro ball.
Later on, Pete Hill served as manager of several minor league teams before being inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 2006.
5. Bingo DeMoss
Bingo DeMoss was a second baseman and manager in the major leagues for over twenty years. He batted right-handed and threw right-handed.
DeMoss won three World Series titles with the Giants (1935, 1936, 1938) and one championship with the Dodgers (1945).
Bingo DeMoss is also remembered for his charity work; he served as chairman of the National Committee to Aid War Victims from 1942 until his death in 1965.
Bingo DeMoss was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962 Bingo DeMoss was the manager for the Chicago American Giants from 1936 to 1944.
He led the team to two championships in 1937 and 1938. After leaving management, he served as a coach for several teams before retiring in 1963.
6. Rube Curry
Rube Curry is best known for his contributions as a pitcher and manager with the Negro leagues. He pitched in the 1924 Colored World Series, helping lead the Kansas City Monarchs to an upset victory over the powerful Chicago White Sox team.
Curry also played minor league baseball before joining the Negro leagues, where he spent most of his career.
After retiring from playing, Curry became a pitching coach with several major league teams before dying in 1966 at 67 years old Rube Curry was born in Lexington, Kentucky on January 5th, 1891.
He played professional baseball for the Kansas City Monarchs from 1920 to 1932. He is best known for his batting average of .406 and home run record of 487 which he set with the Monarchs in 1930.
Curry also led the National League in RBIs twice and won three World Series championships with the Monarchs (1930–32).
After retiring as a player, Rube served as manager and general manager of several teams including Baltimore (1938), Detroit (1945), and Philadelphia (1950).
In 1955 he became head coach at Oklahoma A&M University where he remained until 1968 when he retired from that position too. Rube died on December 6th, 1973 at age 75 after a long battle with Alzheimer's disease.
Also Played For: baltimore black sox
7. Robert Poindexter
Robert Poindexter was born on September 25, 1897, in Washington, D.C. He played baseball professionally for the Negro league's New York Cubans from 1919 to 1925.
In 1924 he compiled a 31-14 record with a 2.12 ERA and led the Cuban team to a championship victory over the Philadelphia Stars of the National League.
Poindexter died at age 32 in 1930 after an accidental fall while playing tennis caused severe head injuries that killed him instantly Poindexter was a versatile player who spent most of his career with the Chicago American Giants.
He appeared in 477 games over nine seasons and averaged 2.5 WAR per season. After leaving the majors, he played for the Birmingham Black Barons in England before returning to Memphis where he finished his career in 1929.
Also Played For: birmingham black barons
8. Bill Charter
Charter was born in Birmingham, Alabama in 1943. Charter played 1st base for the Birmingham Black Barons of the Negro league baseball during the early 1950s.
Charter's last game was on July 7, 1954, and he finished his career with a .271 batting average over 156 games played. After retiring from playing baseball, Charter worked as a truck driver and later became involved in real estate sales and leasing activities.
He passed away on January 15, 1992, at the age of 64 years old Bill Charter played for the Chicago American Giants in 1943 and 1945. He was a pitcher who compiled a record of 10-8 with an ERA of 3.06 in those two seasons.
After leaving baseball, Charter worked as a coach and manager at various levels, most notably with the Wichita Falls Spindles (1973–1978) and Huntsville Stars (1979).
In 1984, he became head coach at Rice University where he remained until his retirement in 1997. Bill Charter was inducted into the Texas Baseball Hall of Fame in 2001 and the Kansas City Royals Hall of Fame in 2002.
9. Jim Brown
- 2x Negro World Series champion (1926, 1927)
Jim Brown was one of the most dominant players in Negro league baseball. He led the league in batting average and home runs multiple times, and he was also a proficient catcher and first baseman.
Brown's professional career began in 1915 with the semi-professional Newark Eagles, where he posted a .325 batting average over three seasons. In 1919, Brown joined the Indianapolis Clowns of the Negro National League (NNL).
He batted .367 with 68 home runs over four seasons with Indy before joining the Cleveland Indians in 1924 as part of an all-black outfield that included Roy Campanella and Larry Doby.
After just two seasons with Cleveland, Brown became one of baseball's best hitters when he joined the Boston Red Sox for their inaugural season in American League (AL) play in 1925 at age 26 years old.
Over eight consecutive full MLB seasons from 1926 to 1934, Brown averaged more than 100 hits per year – including back-to-back 1,000 hit campaigns – while ranking among AL leaders both offensively (.365; 4th), defensively (2nd MVP award; 8 Gold Gloves) and statistically (5th All-Star selection).
His record total of 749 RBI during this stretch ranks 2nd overall behind only Hank Aaron’s 855. He is still 3rd on his team’s all-time list after tallying 1253 RBI lifetime as a Red Sox player.
On January 21st, 1943 Jim died due to congestive heart failure at 50 years old after playing just five games for Birmingham Black Barons—his final game being played less than 24 hours prior to his death - due to dehydration secondary to the influenza pandemic which had recently swept across America.
Brown is buried next door to Ty Cobb at Oakland Cemetery located near downtown Detroit. In 2007 The Baseball Hall Of Fame inducted him into its Wall Of Fame alongside fellow Cooperstown legends Willie Mays & Joe DiMaggio.
10. Dave Malarcher
- 2× Negro World Series champion (1926, 1927), 2× Negro National League pennant (1926, 1927), Negro Southern League pennant (1932)
Malarcher was one of the most prolific Negro league hitters of all time. He batted over .300 in eleven seasons and had 2,000 hits by the age of 38. Malarcher played for six different teams during his career and was a three-time All-Star selection.
Malarcher is best known for his stint with the Chicago American Giants, where he helped lead them to two Negro League championships in 1934 and 1935.
After retiring from playing baseball, Malarcher served as manager and general manager for several minor league teams before passing away in 1982 at the age of 87 years old." Malarcher played professionally for over a decade as an outfielder and manager.
His most successful years came with the Chicago American Giants, who he led to two Negro World Series championships in 1926 and 1927. Malarcher later managed the Detroit Stars of the National League (1919-1920) before returning to manage the Chicago American Giants from 1926-1928 and 1932- 1934.
He was also twice named Manager of the Year by The Sporting News. Dave Malarcher passed away at age 91 in 2007 after a long career in baseball that included managing stints with three different teams - Indianapolis ABCs (1916), Detroit Stars (1919), and finally Chicago American Giants (1920- 1928, 1931- 1934).
11. George Harney
George Harney was a pitcher in the Baseball Hall of Fame. He played for the Chicago Cubs and Detroit Tigers over his career. Harney is most noted for helping lead the Cubs to their first championship in 108 years in 1929.
In 1935, he led the American League with 31 wins and helped win Detroit's third consecutive league championship that year. After retiring from playing, Harney served as manager of both the White Sox (1948-1950) and Padres (1951).
He died at age 71 after suffering a heart attack while coaching batting practice for San Diego's Triple-A affiliate, Las Vegas Stars George Harney was born in 1893 and died in 1953. He played Negro league baseball for the Chicago American Giants from 1923 to 1931.
He is best known for his performance at first base, where he won five Gold Gloves Awards. Harney also led the National League with a .985 fielding percentage four times during his career. In total, he compiled a .296 batting average and 2,615 hits over 11 seasons with the Giants.
12. Dave Brown
Dave Brown was one of the most successful pitchers in Negro League history. He played for the Dallas Black Giants from 1917 to 1922 and won 122 games, which is a record that still stands today.
Dave Brown also competed in Major League Baseball during two seasons (1927 and 1928) but he did not have as much success as he had in the Negro Leagues. In 2003, Dave Brown was inducted into the International African American Hall of Fame in Chicago, Illinois.
Dave Brown was a pitcher for the Negro league baseball Dallas Black Giants from 1917-1918. He later played for the Chicago American Giants from 1919-1922 and then again in 1923 with the New York Lincoln Giants.
Dave Brown had an outstanding record when playing for these teams, winning 45 games and losing only 22 while posting a 3.23 ERA and striking out 336 batters over his career.
After finishing his baseball career, Dave Brown moved to California where he became a successful businessman involved in real estate ventures throughout the state of California Dave Brown passed away on January 1st, 1996 at the age of 83 after having spent many years living in San Diego.
13. Frank Wickware
- Pitched a no-hitter June 5, 1910 in Chicago
Wickware was a pitcher in the early days of baseball, playing for teams like Dallas and Chicago. Wickware had a successful career, winning 20 games or more four times during his tenure.
After retiring as a player, Wickware served as an umpire and referee before passing away at 79 years old. Wickware was a pitcher in Major League Baseball from 1912 to 1914. He pitched for the Brooklyn Royal Giants and Schenectady Mohawk Giants, both of the National League.
Wickware then spent two seasons with the Louisville White Sox of the American League before joining the Chicago Giants as a player-manager in 1917. In 1919, Wickware joined the Lincoln Stars of the new Negro Leagues, where he remained until his retirement following the 1925 season.
Frank Wickware is best remembered for his no-hitter performance on June 5th, 1910 against Philadelphia Phillies.
14. Willie Powell
Willie Powell was a pitcher who played in the Major Leagues for five seasons. He had a record of 96-73 with a 3.46 ERA and 751 strikeouts in 1,301 innings pitched.
Powell also led the league in wins twice (1942 and 1944) and finished third once (1941). He died at age 40 after suffering from an ulcer while pitching for the Detroit Tigers during the 1944 season.
Willie Powell was the first black player in Negro league baseball. He played for the Chicago American Giants from 1925 to 1929 and 1932 to 1933. After his playing career, he became a manager and coach for teams including the Detroit Stars (1930-1931), Akron Black Tyrites (1933), and Cleveland Red Sox (1934).
15. Dick Whitworth
Dick Whitworth was a pitcher and batter in the Negro Leagues. He played for several teams, including the Kansas City Monarchs, Cincinnati Reds, and Boston Red Sox.
Whitworth is most famous for his time with the St Louis Cardinals from 1937-1941 where he won 118 games and lost just 54. Dick Whitworth died at 70 years old after a long illness.
Dick Whitworth is remembered as the first black player in Negro league baseball. Dick Whitworth played for four different teams over his career, and he was a part of two championship seasons.
Dick Whitworth spent most of his time with the Chicago Union Giants, where he won two championships in 1916 and 1919. After winning back-to-back championships with the American Giants in 1922 and 1924, Dick Whitworth retired from professional baseball at the age of 27 years old.
Dick Whitworth's accomplishments on the field speak for themselves - he was inducted into both the Baseball Hall of Fame and The Negro Leagues Baseball Museum Hall of Fame after his death in 1984.
16. Pythias Russ
- 2× Negro World Series champion (1926, 1927)
Pythias Russ was a catcher and shortstop who played in the Negro National League. He had a brief career, playing for only one season before dying at age 26.
Russ is most famous for catching Satchel Paige's final game in the Negro National League, which helped propel Paige to Hall of Fame status.
Russ also played with other notable players during his time in the Negro Leagues, including Cool Papa Bell and Buck Leonard.
Russ was a key player on the 1925 Memphis Red Sox, who went on to win the Negro World Series.
Russ also played for Birmingham Black Barons in 1925. He led all American League players with a .363 batting average in 1926 and 1927. In 1929, Russ joined the Chicago American Giants but did not play in their championship season due to illness.
17. Leroy Grant
Leroy Grant was a first baseman who played in the Majors from 1919 to 1938. He won two World Series with the Boston Red Sox (1921 and 1926) and he also had success on the road, hitting .309 with 27 home runs in 143 games away from Fenway Park.
After retiring as a player, Grant served as batting coach for the Reds (1945-46), White Sox (1947-49), and Dodgers (1950). In 1951, Grant was diagnosed with cancer of the liver and died less than two years later at age 62.
His death left a lasting impression on baseball; his number 4 was retired by both Boston and Cincinnati Baseball Teams in 1955 respectively.
Leroy Grant is one of only six players inducted into both the Hall of Fame AND The National Baseball Hall of Fame as a player without any managerial experience.
A memorial plaque dedicated to Leroy Grant stands outside Busch Stadium III in St Louis, Missouri where he made his final Major League appearance after being traded there by Boston following their victory over Cincinnati in Game 7 of the 1936 World Series - an event which has come to be known as "The Greatest Game Ever Played".
18. Ted Trent
Ted Trent was born in Jacksonville, Florida on December 17, 1903. He played Negro league baseball for the Chicago American Giants from 1931 to 1934 and 1946 to 1948.
In 1931 he won 20 games, lost only 5, and led the team in strikeouts (155). In 1932 he had a 19-11 record with 162 strikeouts and 2 shutouts, earning him MVP honors of the East division of the Negro National League (NNL).
The following year he went 24-15 with 163 K's and 1 shutout helping lead his club to its first championship since 1911.
Trent spent one more season with Chicago before retiring at age 40 after posting a 67-52 record with 814 strikeouts across 9 seasons as a pitcher in the NNL and AA leagues combined Ted Trent was a pitcher for the Chicago American Giants from 1934 to 1939.
He helped lead the team to two World Series appearances, in 1935 and 1938. After retiring as a player, he served as manager of several teams over the next few years. Ted Trent passed away in 1975 at the age of 70.
19. Jelly Gardner
Jelly Gardner was a left-handed outfielder who played for the Chicago White Sox from 1923 to 1936. He won three World Series titles with the team, in 1932, 1934, and 1935.
Gardner led the American League in hits (194) and batting average (.326) during the 1932 season. His .326 batting average is still a record for an AL player in a season.
Gardner also appeared in five All-Star games during his career, and he finished third behind Willie Mays and Babe Ruth in voting for MVP Awards twice (1932, 1934).
After retiring as a player, Jelly served as vice president of baseball operations for the Boston Red Sox from 1966 to 1969 before returning to Chicago.
Where he became chairman of Sears Roebuck & Co.'s board of directors until his death at age 81 years old Gardner was one of the most versatile players in baseball during the 1920s. He played first base, third base, shortstop, and left field for teams throughout his career.
Gardner led the American League in fielding percentage five times during his tenure with Detroit Stars (1919–1920, 1931). In 1927 he led the league in home runs and RBI while playing for Homestead Grays.
After retiring as a player, Gardner served as manager for Lincoln Giants (1927) and Chicago American Giants (1928- 1930). Gardner was inducted into both the Baseball Hall of Fame and Negro Leagues Baseball Museum halls of fame after his death at age 88 in 1954.
20. Steel Arm Davis
Steel Arm Davis was an outfielder, pitcher, and manager in the Negro leagues. He played for the Waco Black Navigators from 1918 to 1921 and then finished his career with the Chicago American Giants from 1922 to 1941.
In total, he hit .282 with 136 home runs and 941 RBI in 1,872 games played. As a pitcher, he had a 3-1 record with 177 strikeouts in 261 innings pitched over 14 seasons.
Davis also managed several teams during his career but is most well known for leading the Detroit Stars to their first championship in 1934 as player/manager.
He died at the age of 50 after a battle with pneumonia Davis was born in 1903 and began playing baseball at a young age. He played for several Negro league teams before joining the San Antonio Black Missions in 1938.
Davis was a dominant hitter throughout his career, batting over .300 on several occasions and earning multiple MVP awards along the way.
After retiring from baseball, Davis became a successful coach and manager in both professional and amateur leagues across the United States. Davis passed away in 2009 at the age of 94 after spending many years living out his retirement near Nashville, Tennessee.
21. Tom Johnson
Tom Johnson was a pitcher and batter in the early days of baseball. He played for the Chicago White Sox from 1914 to 1916, and then again in 1920. In 1925, he had his best season with the Boston Braves, posting a 2.00 ERA over 160 innings pitched.
Johnson died in 1926 at age 37 after contracting pneumonia while on vacation in Florida Tom Johnson was a pitcher for the Louisville White Sox in 1914.
He won 20 games that season and helped lead the team to an American League pennant. The following year, 1915, he had a much worse season and was released from the team.
In 1917, Tom signed with the Chicago American Giants where he again had success as a starting pitcher, winning 44 games over two seasons with the club.
After playing part of one season with Detroit Stars (1919-1920), he retired from baseball at age 33 after compiling 241 wins, 144 losses and 31 ties in his career.
22. Jimmie Lyons
Lyons was a pitcher and utility player for the St. Louis Giants during their 1910-1912 seasons. He batted left and threw right, but is most remembered today as manager of the same team in 1921.
Lyons led the Giants to two consecutive National League pennants (1921-22) before being fired midway through his third season as manager - a record that still stands today.
After leaving baseball, Lyons opened a sporting goods store in Chicago until his death in 1961 at 71 years old Jimmie Lyons was one of the most versatile players in American football history.
He played for eight different teams during his career and was a part of five championship teams. Jimmie Lyons is also known for being the first African-American player to be drafted into the National Football League (NFL).
After his playing career ended, he became a coach and eventually led several NFL teams to victory.
23. Jack Marshall
Jack Marshall was a pitcher who played in the major leagues from 1922-1961. He pitched for the New York Yankees, Boston Red Sox, Philadelphia Athletics and Chicago White Sox.
Marshall is best known for his time with the Yankees where he won three World Series titles (1947, 1949, 1951).
After retiring as a player, Marshall served as manager of the A's and White Sox before passing away in 1961 at age 68.
Marshall was a pitcher who played with the Detroit Stars in 1922 and 1928. Marshall is best known for his performance on July 2, 1924, when he struck out 10 batters in one inning against the Kansas City Monarchs.
After playing baseball professionally for over a decade, Marshall served in World War II as an officer in the United States Army Air Forces before retiring from professional play at age 33.
Jack Marshall died at age 73 after a long battle with cancer.
24. Charles O'Neil
Charles O'Neil was a catcher in Negro league baseball. He debuted with the Columbus Buckeyes in 1921 and remained with them for four seasons. O'Neil had success throwing right, ranking among the top catchers of his era.
After playing in the Negro leagues, O'Neil eventually reached Major League Baseball (MLB).
In 1941 he played for the Philadelphia Stars and finished his career with two seasons with the Chicago White Sox before retiring at age 40 in 1945 due to injuries sustained during a game against Brooklyn Dodgers on July 9th, 1944 Charles O'Neil was an outfielder for the Toledo Tigers during the 1923 season.
He played in 130 games and had a batting average of .288. O'Neil also scored 65 runs and stole 32 bases, both of which were second-best on the team. After his professional baseball career finished, he returned to his hometown of Columbus and became a police officer there.
25. Steven Dixon
Steven Dixon was born on December 4, 1984, in Corpus Christi, Texas. He attended San Jacinto College and played for the school's baseball team from 2002 to 2004.
In 2005, he enrolled at Southern Illinois University Carbondale to play college baseball and started the season as a freshman pitcher but eventually moved into relief work due to injury problems.
After his junior year at SIU-CC, Dixon transferred to Oklahoma State University where he continued playing baseball for the Cowboys until 2009 when he decided not to continue playing professionally after being drafted by the Baltimore Orioles in the fourth round of that year's amateur draft.
Steven finished his collegiate career with a 14-6 record and 137 strikeouts over 151 innings pitched while walking only 42 batters during that time period.
Which led many scouts to believe him to have been one of if not the top pitching prospect available during his draft year despite never having made it past Single-A ball before then (he would go onto make five starts between Double-A Bowie Baysox and Triple-A Norfolk Tides).
After failing an alcohol test shortly after signing with Baltimore Orioles affiliate Norfolk Tides in 2010 however led him be suspended from professional baseball for two years. Dixon returned home and began working as a firefighter/paramedic.
Full-time while still attempting rehab stints hoping a one-day to return to pitch in organized leagues again although there is no timetable yet set for this possible comeback attempt though everyone remains hopeful about it happening down the road sometime soon.
26. Harry Bauchman
Harry Bauchman was born in Omaha, Nebraska on June 6th, 1890. He played baseball for the Kansas City Monarchs of the Negro league from 1915-1921.
In 1921 he signed with the Chicago American Giants and spent two seasons there before dying in 1931 at age 41 due to a heart attack.
Harry Bauchman was born in St. Louis, Missouri on October 16th, 1889. He played professional baseball from 1909 to 1921 and made his debut with the Minneapolis Keystones of the American Association.
In 1911 he joined the Chicago Union Giants and spent three seasons with them before being traded to the Chicago American Giants in 1915.
The following season he moved to San Francisco where he played for two years before rejoining the Chicago Union Giants in 1917. In 1919 Harry signed with the new Chicago Giant team and remained with them until their demise at the end of the 1921 season.
27. Bruce Petway
Petway was a catcher in the Negro Leagues for over two decades. He played with the Homestead Grays and Pittsburgh Crawfords, among other teams. In 1931, Petway caught Ty Cobb's final game, which helped lead to his induction into the Hall of Fame.
He died from cancer in 1941 at age 55. Bruce Petway was born in 1906 and played for the Cuban X-Giants from 1906 to 1925. He led the league in home runs twice, with 31 HRs in 1920 and 25 HRs in 1923.
He also finished third behind Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig in MVP voting on two occasions, back-to-back seasons of 1923 and 1924.
Bruce Petway died in 1925 at the age of 36 after a long career as one of baseball's most feared hitters.
28. Herb Barnhill
Herb Barnhill was a catcher in the major leagues for over 30 years. He played with the Brooklyn Dodgers, Cincinnati Reds, and Pittsburgh Pirates. In 1955 he caught Roy Campanella's no-hitter against the New York Mets.
He is most famous for his role as a catcher on the 1960 World Series-winning team of the Pittsburgh Pirates.
Barnhill retired from playing in 1967 after serving as captain of the Pirates' farm system until 1971 when they traded him to Baltimore Orioles He died at 91 years old in 2004 after a long illness Herb Barnhill was the first black player in Major League Baseball.
He made his debut with the Jacksonville Red Caps in 1938 and played for them until 1946. During his time with the team, he helped lead them to two American Association championships (1941 and 1942).
After leaving Jacksonville, Barnhill played for the Cleveland Bears (1939–40) and then the Kansas City Monarchs (1943).
In 1944, he joined the Chicago American Giants - one of only a few teams at that time to field an all-black roster - where he spent four seasons before retiring at age 34 due to injury.
Herb Barnhill is now considered one of baseball's greatest pioneers, having paved the way for other minorities to participate in America's favorite pastime.
29. Percy Bailey
- 1× All-Star (1933)
Percy Bailey was a starting pitcher in the Negro league for many years. He had a successful career, winning more than 200 games. He is best known for his record-breaking performance in 1941 when he pitched 52 consecutive shutouts.
Percy Bailey died at the age of 76 after a long and successful career in baseball Percy Bailey was an all-star player for the Nashville Elite Giants in 1933.
He led the team to a championship that year, and he also won a championship with the Indianapolis ABCs/Detroit Stars in 1933.
Bailey played in both leagues during his career, and he was one of the most successful players of his time. He is remembered as one of the greatest hitters of his era, and he contributed greatly to both league championships.
Percy Bailey passed away at age 69 after a long and successful career in baseball.
30. Ossie Brown
Ossie Brown was one of the best black pitchers in baseball during the 1930s. He made his debut with the Chicago American Giants in 1935 and remained with that team until 1938.
In total, he had a record of 41 wins and 27 losses over his career. After retiring from playing baseball, Ossie worked as a coach for various teams before passing away in 1984 at the age of 68 years old.
Ossie Brown was a star pitcher in the Negro Leagues who played for the New Orleans–St. Louis Stars from 1939 to 1942. He was one of the most successful pitchers in black baseball history, winning over 100 games and leading his team to several championships.
After World War II, he became a Major League player with the Chicago American Giants but struggled to find success and retired after just two seasons.
31. Red Hale
Red Hale is a shortstop for the Buffalo Bisons in the Negro leagues. He made his debut with them on July 16, 1914, and has been playing for them ever since.
Hale was born in 1892 in Americus, Georgia, and began playing baseball at an early age. He attended Tuskegee Institute, where he played both football and baseball and starred as a pitcher before turning to shortstop full-time.
Red's teammates affectionately call him "Old Reliable" because of his consistent play over the years - even during tough times when other teams have folded or gone out of business, Hale has always found ways to keep himself busy by coaching or managing various Negro league teams throughout his career.
In 2002, Red was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame alongside Hank Aaron and Satchel Paige (the only three players of African American descent).
Aside from being one of history's most decorated black ballplayers, Red also holds several records including the Most hits by a shortstop (1,591), most doubles (420), most runs scored by a shortstop (1,599), and highest batting average (.357).
32. Oscar Boone
Oscar Boone was a catcher who played in the major leagues from 1931 to 1958. He had a productive career, batting .285 with 1,602 hits and 234 doubles in 2,512 games.
Boone also threw right-handed and led American League catchers in assists twice (1937 and 1944).
After his playing days were over he became a coach for several teams including the Detroit Tigers (1958-1959), Los Angeles Dodgers (1960), New York Yankees (1963-1966) and Atlanta Braves (1968).
Boone had a very successful Negro league career, playing for the Atlanta Black Crackers from 1939 to 1941. Boone was one of the most feared hitters in baseball during his time, batting over.
350 each season. After finishing his career with the Chicago American Giants, Boone went on to have a long and successful major league career with the Cleveland Indians and Boston Red Sox.
33. Randolph Bowe
Randolph Bowe was a pitcher who played in the Major Leagues for over 25 years. He started his career with the Boston Red Sox and then went on to play for the Philadelphia Phillies, Chicago White Sox, Detroit Tigers, Pittsburgh Pirates, Milwaukee Brewers and finally the Kansas City Royals.
Bowe is most well-known for being part of four World Series championship teams – three with the Philadelphia Phillies (1960-1963) and one with KC (1985).
Randolph Bowe was inducted into both the Baseball Hall of Fame and The Pennsylvania Sports Hall of Fame in 2005. He passed away at 97 years old after a long illness.
Randolph Bowe made his Negro league baseball debut in 1938 with the Kansas City Monarchs. He played for the Chicago American Giants in 1939 and 1940, before joining the Indianapolis Clowns in 1940.
Randolph Bowe was a left-handed hitter who batted .306 over two seasons of play. After playing in only one game for Indianapolis, Randolph Bowe retired from professional baseball at the age of 24 due to World War II obligations.
Randolph Bowe passed away in 1978 at the age of 62 after a long illness and is remembered as one of the most accomplished black players in Negro league history.
34. Leonard Johnson
Leonard Johnson made his Negro league baseball debut in 1903 with the Kansas City Monarchs. Leonard Johnson was a pitcher and batted left-handed. He threw right-handed.
Leonard Johnson played for the Kansas City Monarchs, Greenville Giants, Philadelphia Stars, and Birmingham Black Barons during his career. Leonard Johnson died on January 9, 1937, in Mobile, Alabama at the age of 66 after a long illness.
Leonard Johnson was a pitcher for the Chicago American Giants and Kansas City Monarchs. Leonard Johnson had a successful career, winning 96 games in his two seasons with the teams.
He also set several records during his time as a pitcher, including the most complete games in one season (26) and most innings pitched in one season (344).
Leonard Johnson died young at only 36 years old from cirrhosis of the liver, which left behind a wife and three children.
35. Jesse Briscoe
Jesse Briscoe had a long and successful career in Negro league baseball. He played for the New York Black Sox from 1910 to 1912, before joining the Philadelphia Stars in 1913.
After two seasons with the Stars, he moved on to play for the Homestead Grays and then the Chicago American Giants. In 1921, he joined the Kansas City Monarchs and remained with them until his retirement in 1939.
During his career, Briscoe won three batting titles (1914, 1920, 1923) and led his teams to seven Negro League championships (1912-1920).
He was also named an All-Star eight times (1913-1920; 1922), as well as being inducted into both the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in 1937 and the Kentucky Sports Hall of Fame in 1951 He was born in 1882 and died in 1951.
Jesse Briscoe played for the Chicago American Giants from 1914-1915, posting a .226 batting average with 2 home runs and 12 RBIs during that time.
After spending 1916 with the New York Black Sox, he returned to the White Sox in 1917 where he would spend his final season before retiring at the end of 1919.
He is most famous as one of three players - along with Shoeless Joe Jackson and Ty Cobb - banned from Major League Baseball following the 1919 World Series due to their involvement in 'The Black Sox Scandal.'
In 1981, Jesse Briscoe was posthumously elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame as a member of its first-class inductees.
36. Cleo Benson
Cleo Benson was a catcher in the Major Leagues for 16 seasons, most notably with the Boston Red Sox (1939-1963). He amassed 1,711 hits and 330 home runs during his career.
Benson also won four Gold Gloves as a catcher and led all catchers in putouts twice. Cleo Benson retired after the 1963 season with 3,352 total plate appearances; he ranks tenth all-time among American League catchers in that category.
After retiring from baseball, Cleo Benson worked as an infield coach for several teams before passing away at the age of 64 years old in 1978.
Cleo Benson was the first African American to play in the Negro League. Cleo Benson played for the Chicago American Giants in 1942 and made his debut that year.
He continued to play for them until 1944 when he joined the Newark Eagles. After leaving the Negro Leagues, Cleo Benson played briefly in Major League Baseball with Philadelphia Athletics (1949). He died at an early age from a heart attack in 1951.
37. Leland Davis
Davis was born in 1938 and made his Negro league baseball debut with the Chicago American Giants in 1938. Davis went on to play for several other teams, including the Kansas City Monarchs, Baltimore Elite Giants, and Cleveland Buckeyes.
He retired from playing in 1966 but continued to work as a scout for various teams until his death in 2003 at the age of 74. Davis was a very talented outfielder for the Chicago American Giants in 1938. Davis had an impressive batting average and on-base percentage that year.
He also led the team with 11 home runs and 50 RBIs, both of which were career highs. Davis was one of only two players on the Giants to hit over .300 that season, finishing with a .309 batting average overall.
After playing his entire professional career with Chicago, Davis finished his days with them as their all-time leader in hits (2,839), doubles (349), and total bases (3,277).
38. Lloyd Bruce
Lloyd Bruce was born on May 15, 1907, in Sherman, Texas. He began his baseball career as a pitcher and played for several teams over the years. In 1957 he became the first black manager in MLB when he took over as interim manager of the Boston Red Sox.
After leaving baseball he worked as a television sports commentator and served as president of the Negro American League from 1971 to 1973.
Lloyd Bruce died on March 28, 1988, at age 80 after a long illness Lloyd Bruce debuted in the Negro league baseball at the age of 17 with the Chicago American Giants.
He would make his final appearance for them in 1940. Lloyd was a very talented player, and he helped lead the team to 5 championships during his career.
After retiring from playing, he became an executive with several major league teams, including the Detroit Tigers and Oakland A's.
39. Herbert Buster
Herbert Buster was a second baseman who played in the MLB for 15 seasons. He spent his entire career with the Boston Red Sox and was a two-time MVP Award recipient.
Herbert Buster is most famous for his time with the Red Sox, where he helped lead them to championship titles in 1946 and 1967. He also won three Gold Gloves during his playing days and retired as one of the all-time greats at second base.
After retiring from baseball, Herbert Buster worked as a color commentator on various broadcasts throughout MLB until his death in 1976 at age 61.
He will always be remembered for his excellence on the field and dedication to broadcasting after it was over.
Herbert Buster played in Negro league baseball for the Chicago American Giants from 1943-1944. Buster was born on October 12, 1922, in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. He attended Tuskegee Institute and played football and basketball there before turning to professional baseball.
During his time with the American Giants, Buster posted a batting average of .293 and compiled 84 hits in 147 at-bats (.611 slugging percentage).
After playing mostly as an outfielder with the Giants, he signed with the Kansas City Monarchs of the Negro leagues in 1945 and enjoyed further success offensively - posting a batting average of .317 over 97 games that season.
In 1946, Buster joined the Indianapolis Clowns of the All-America Football Conference (AAFC) but only appeared in one game before returning to play for Kansas City again that year.
His final professional season was in 1947 with Newark Eagles of organized ball's second division where he batted just .180/.241/.261 over 65 games.
After retiring as an active player, Herbert continued to play semi-professional baseball until he retired completely at age 70 in 1984. He died on July 15th, 2000 at age 80 after a long battle with lung cancer.
40. Robert Griffin
Griffin was born in 1997 and played his first baseball game at age 9. Griffin is a left-handed pitcher who has been drafted by the Washington Nationals in the second round of the 2013 MLB Draft.
Griffin made his professional debut with the Tri-City Dust Devils of the short-season A+ Northern League on July 10, 2013. In 31 games (29 starts), he posted a record of 7-5 with a 2.68 ERA and 141 strikeouts in 131 innings pitched.
He also appeared in five postseason games for Tri-City, posting an 0-1 record with a 4 earned run average (ERA). On October 22nd, 2014, Griffin signed with the DC Braves of the independent league Atlantic League for the 2015 season Robert Griffin was drafted in the first round by the Washington Redskins in 2012.
He played at Baylor University and set school records for completions, passing yards, touchdowns, and total offense. In his rookie season, he started all 16 games and led the Redskins to a victory over the New Orleans Saints in Super Bowl XLVII.
A torn ACL limited him to just seven starts in 2013 and 2014 but he returned to form last year starting 11 of 12 games for Washington before being injured again against Baltimore late in the season.
Griffin is currently rehabilitating from another surgery on his knee but is still hopeful of re-joining Washington this year as their starter under new head coach Jay Gruden.
41. Dennis Biddle
Dennis Biddle was drafted by the Chicago American Giants in the 4th round of the 1997 amateur draft. Dennis made his professional debut with the AAG in 1998 and went on to spend 10 seasons with the club before retiring in 2009.
In addition to pitching, Dennis also played first base, third base, and left field for Chicago American Giants during his tenure with the team. After retirement from baseball, Dennis pursued a career as a financial advisor and continues to work in that profession today.
Having spent over 20 years playing professionally at various levels, Dennis has developed an extensive knowledge of both baseball strategy and player performance which he applies frequently when working with clients as a financial advisor.
Dennis is married with two children and resides in suburban Chicago outside of city limits where he enjoys spending time outdoors including golfing and fishing.
42. John Hines
- 2× Negro League World Series champion (1926, 1927)
Johnnie E. Hines was an all-around player in the Negro Leagues and Major League Baseball during the 1920s and 1930s.
He started his career with the Birmingham Black Barons of the Southern Association, playing for them from 1921 to 1923 before joining the Pittsburgh Pirates organization.
After a few seasons with Pittsburgh (1929-1931), Hines joined the Chicago Cubs where he played until 1942, retiring with 2128 hits, including 254 doubles and 102 home runs in 1275 games played.
In 1945, Johnnie was elected to baseball's Hall of Fame as part of its first class; while he never won a championship ring in either league, he is widely considered one of MLB's most accomplished players of African American descent.
Johnnie died at age 70 after a long battle with leukemia; today he is remembered as one of baseball's great pioneers and an important figure in civil rights history.
43. Juan Padrón
Juan Padrón was a pitcher who played in Negro league baseball from 1915 to 1981. He had a long and successful career, playing for many teams over the years.
Padrón is best known for his time with the Detroit Stars, where he won three championships between 1948 and 1951. Juan Padrón passed away in 1981 at the age of 89 after a lengthy battle with Alzheimer's Disease Juan Padrón was a pitcher for the Indianapolis ABCs in 1926.
He led the league with 32 wins that season and also had an ERA of 2.21, which was good for ninth-best in the league. Padrón played during a time when baseball was becoming more popular and easier to follow across different countries, as seen by his playing on teams like the Cuban Stars (West) and American Giants (East).
Juan Padrón is most notable for his contribution to baseball history though; he remains one of only three players ever to win 300 games in both professional leagues (Major League Baseball and Mexican Professional Baseball).
44. Wilson Redus
Wilson Redus was an infielder and pitcher in Negro league baseball. He played for the Cleveland Browns from 1924 to 1936. Redus earned a place in the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1969.
After retiring from playing, Redus served as a coach and manager in Negro league baseball. Wilson Redus passed away on March 23, 1979, at the age of 74 after a long illness He was a running back for the Cleveland Giants in the 1930s.
He had some success with the team, but he is most remembered for his performance against the Chicago Bears in 1940. This game is often considered one of the greatest performances by an NFL player ever. He died from a heart attack later that year at age 34.
45. Tom Turner
Tom Turner was a pitcher and first baseman who played in the major leagues for 19 seasons. He started his career with the Boston Red Sox, playing there from 1941-1944 and then again in 1951.
After leaving Boston, he played for the Cleveland Indians (1945-1950), Detroit Tigers (1951-1953), Philadelphia Phillies (1954), and Chicago White Sox ( 1954). Tom Turner is best known for leading the American League in home runs twice - with 44 HRs each time - during the 1952 season with Detroit and 1953 with Philadelphia.
He ended his career as a player after playing one final game for Chicago in 1955 at age 39. Tom Turner holds several records related to slugging percentage including most times hitting over .500 (.558 overall; 5th all-time) and most doubles in an MLB season (39; 2nd all-time).
In 1986, he was elected to be part of Baseball's Hall of Fame along with former teammate Joe DiMaggio.
46. Nat Rogers
Nat Rogers was an outfielder who played in the Negro leagues for over fifty years. He had a successful career, winning several batting titles and MVP Awards.
He also threw out plenty of runners, helping his teams to win many games. Nat Rogers passed away in 1981 at the age of 91 after a long and distinguished baseball career.
Nat Rogers was a pitcher for the Memphis Red Sox from 1937-1945. He led the team in wins three times and had a career ERA of 2.56, which is respectable for his era.
Nat Rogers also set several pitching records during his time with the Red Sox, including most games started (378), innings pitched (5394), and strikeouts (1484).
After retiring from baseball, Nat Rogers became a coach for the team before eventually becoming the general manager in 1950. Nat Rogers died in 1965 at age 73 after a long battle with cancer.
47. Willie Ware
- Negro League World Series champion (1926)
Willie Ware was a powerful right-handed hitter and thrower in the Negro leagues. He began playing professional baseball with the Chicago American Giants in 1924 and remained with that team for six seasons.
In 1934, he joined the Pittsburgh Pirates, where he played until 1939. After leaving professional baseball, Ware served as an assistant coach for several teams before retiring in 1968.
He died on February 24th, 1984 at the age of 80 years old Willie Ware was a Negro League Baseball player who won the 1926 Negro League World Series with the Chicago American Giants.
Willie Ware played for teams including the Chicago American Giants and the Philadelphia Stars during his career, which spanned from 1924 to 1926.
He is best known for his performance in the 1926 Negro League World Series, where he helped lead the Chicago American Giants to victory over rivals, the Baltimore Black Sox.
After retiring from baseball, Willie Ware worked as a coach and manager in several different leagues throughout America before passing away in 1984 at age 79 years old.
48. Clarence Locke
Clarence Locke was a pitcher in the Negro Leagues who played for several teams over his career. Clarence Locke is best known for his time spent with the Kansas City Monarchs, where he helped lead them to two league championships and an All-Star Game appearance.
Clarence Locke died of a heart attack at the age of 59 years old. Clarence Locke was the first African American to play in a Negro league baseball game.
Clarence Locke played for the Chicago American Giants from 1945-1948. Clarence Locke had a successful career, winning three championships with the Giants.
Clarence Locke is also known for his pitching skills and for being one of the most successful black pitchers in history. After finishing his playing career, Clarence Locke became an executive with several major league teams including the Dodgers and White Sox organizations.
In 1984, he was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame as part of its inaugural class of pioneers in negro leagues and independent baseball.
49. Clyde McNeal
Clyde McNeal was a shortstop in the major leagues for 14 seasons. He played for the Boston Red Sox, Cleveland Indians, and St. Louis Cardinals from 1951 to 1968.
Clyde McNeal is one of only six players in history to have at least 1,000 hits and 100 stolen bases in his career. In 1967 he led all National League shortstops with a .979 fielding percentage while also batting .282/.362/.452 with 41 RBIs and 22 stolen bases in 78 games played (166 plate appearances).
After leaving baseball, McNeal worked as an infield coach for several teams including the Texas Rangers (1969-1971), Oakland A's (1972-1974), Atlanta Braves (1975-1976), and Cincinnati Reds (1977).
Clyde died of cancer at age 67 after serving as Executive Vice President of Baseball Operations for the San Diego Padres from 1980 until his death four years later.
50. Luther Gilyard
Luther Gilyard was one of the best first basemen in baseball history. He batted .325 with 3,060 hits during his career and led the American League in 1941.
After playing for nine seasons with the Boston Red Sox, Gilyard was traded to Detroit in 1951. He played there until his retirement after the 1966 season. Luther Gilyard is a member of both the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum as well as the Arkansas Sports Hall of Fame and Museum.
Luther Gilyard made his Negro league baseball debut in 1937 with the St. Louis Stars and played until 1942 when he moved to Birmingham, Alabama to play for the Black Barons. Luther was a switch hitter and hit .288 with 84 RBIs in 373 games over his career.
After retiring from playing, Luther became a coach for several teams before ending his coaching career at the minor level in 1966.
Luther is currently retired and lives in Saint Petersburg, Florida where he remains involved in baseball as a member of the board of directors for an organization that promotes Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).
He has been inducted into both the Baseball Hall of Fame and The National Baseball Coaches Association Hall of Fame.
51. Zell Miles
Zell Miles began his professional baseball career with the Birmingham Black Barons of the Negro Leagues in 1930. He played for several minor league teams before signing with the Washington Senators in 1942.
After spending two seasons with Washington, Miles was traded to the Philadelphia Athletics in 1944 where he spent six seasons as a regular left fielder and pitcher.
In 1951, Miles signed with the Boston Red Sox and remained there until retiring after playing one season with their farm team, the Durham Bulls in 1952.
Following his retirement from baseball, Zell served as an executive vice president of Minor League Baseball from 1958-1970. Zell is also notable for being one of only four players inducted into both the Professional Baseball Hall of Fame (in 1972) and the National Baseball Hall of Fame (in 1982).
Miles was posthumously awarded a Presidential Medal of Freedom by then-President George H W Bush on December 12th, 1990.
The Chicago American Giants were a legendary Negro League baseball team that played an integral role in the development of many players who went on to become stars in Major League Baseball.
Some of the best players who had stints with the Chicago American Giants include Satchel Paige, Willie Mays, and Jackie Robinson. The Chicago American Giants are considered one of the most successful teams in Negro League history and they will always be remembered as legends in black baseball.
How Much Did A Baseball Cost In 1962?
It costs $ 0.25 per ball at that time.
How Much Did A Baseball Cost In 1962
In a baseball cost around $ 0.25 per ball.
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There are a few different ways to clean white baseball pants. You can use a mild bleach solution, soap and water, or a commercial cleaning agent.
What Does The Number On A Bat Mean?
The number on the bat means that the ball has been hit. It is a standard measurement for bats in order to keep track of their performance.
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There are a few key differences between American football boots and soccer boots. First, American football boots typically have a heavier construction than soccer boots, which is necessary in order to absorb more impact when players are running with the ball.
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Breaking in a new baseball glove can be frustrating, but with a little patience and some elbow grease, you’ll have the perfect glove for your batting needs. Here are five tips to help you break in your new glove fast: Warm up the glove before you start hitting.
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There is a curve in football which affects the trajectory of the ball. This curve, or “s-curve” as it is commonly referred to, makes the ball travel further than if it were round.